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Common Visual Conditions

Everyone at some point in their lives will have or develop some type of vision impairment.

How your vision works


When looking at an object, the light reflecting from it enters the eye. This light enters the eye through the cornea which is the clear layer of tissue in front of the eye. The cornea bends the light and passes through the iris, which changes the size of the pupil depending on the brightness of the light. Once through the pupil the light will enter the lens which focuses the light through the vitreous humour on to the retina wall. The retina’s surface comprises of photoreceptors (light sensitive neurons) that translate the light signal into an electric one and sends the information along the optic nerve to the brain.

In a normal eye the cornea and crystalline lens focus the light exactly on to a small area of the retina, producing a sharp image.

AVC's innovative solutions


Advanced Vision Care has innovative solutions to the most common visual conditions. These include short/near-sightedness or myopia, long/far-sightedness or hyperopia, astigmatism and presbyopia, as well as blurred vision or loss of eyesight due to glaucoma, cataracts, or degenerative conditions.

We have the experts, knowledge, and technologies to perform total vision correction. Using the most advanced laser and non-laser technology, we can deliver a full range of techniques and procedures in a safe and painless manner. As pioneers in modern eye health, trust that our treatments will make a profound difference to your life.

For every common eyesight problem, we offer treatment options that are equally effective. These include:

  • Laser Vision Correction – LASIK or LASEK techniques where the cornea is curved to enable the light to reach the retina.
  • Implanted Contact Lenses – biocompatible, micro-thin contact lenses implanted inside the eye, behind the iris.
  • Clear Lens Exchange – The crystalline lens of the eye is replaced with an artificial lens that alters the path of the light enabling it to reach the retina.

State-of-the-Art Vision Care Focused on You

Your eyes are your gateway to the world. Having a visual impairment or being dependent on contact lenses or glasses prevents you from living life at its fullest. This is why we founded a practice that’s solely focused on eye sight and visual health care. Our mission is to make safe and painless corrective eye treatments within your reach.

Our treatments are performed to the highest clinical standards to deliver life-changing results. From common visual problems to complex eye conditions, our surgeons can deliver a treatment that’s right for you. We have the most advanced technologies and surgery theatres under one roof in a comfortable, relaxing clinic.

Consult with us and get a personalised vision correction treatment from Harley Street’s elite eye surgeons.

Most common visual conditions


This is when distant objects are blurred but close objects are clear.

This is caused by the eye being longer than normal or a steep cornea. When the light passes through the eye the steep cornea or the elongation of the eye causes the light to fall short of the retina and causes the light rays to cross each other producing a blurred image.

1 in 3 people in the UK have myopia

Treating Myopia:

Corrective lenses – Glasses with concave lenses and contact lenses.

Laser vision correction – The cornea is flattened to enable the light to reach the retina.

Implantable Contact Lenses – The lenses works like corrective lenses but are situated inside the eye.

Clear Lens Exchange  – The crystalline lens of the eye is replaced with an artificial lens that alters the path of the light enabling it to reach the retina.

 

This is when close objects are blurry and distant objects are clear.

This can be caused by the cornea being flat, the lens not being thick enough or most commonly, the eye being shorter than normal. When the light passes through the eye the light trajectory goes beyond the retina producing a blurred image.

Approximately 13% of British people aged between 20 and 25 years have hyperopia

hyperopia

Treating Hyperopia:

Corrective lenses – Glasses with concave lenses and contact lenses.

Laser vision correction – The cornea is curved to enable the light to reach the retina.

Implantable Contact Lenses – The lenses work like corrective lenses but are situated inside the eye.

Clear Lens Exchange  – The crystalline lens of the eye is replaced with an artificial lens that alters the path of the light enabling it to reach the retina.

This is when objects are blurry for both distance and near vision ranges.

This can be caused by the irregular shape of the cornea or lens. However it is most commonly due to the eye being more like a rugby ball shape rather than a football, consequently distorting the path of the light. This shape causes the light to scatter, leading to a blurry image and is often accompanied by myopia or hyperopia.

Approximately 9 out of 10 people have some degree of astigmatism

Treating Astigmatisms:

Corrective lenses – Glasses (irregular shaped) and toric contact lenses.

Laser vision correction – The cornea made more symmetrical enabling the light to reach the retina.

Implantable Contact Lenses – The lenses works like corrective contact lenses but are situated inside the eye.

Clear Lens Exchange  – The natural lens of the eye is replaced with an artificial lens that alters the path of the light enabling it to reach the retina irrelevant of the presence of an astigmatism.

This is when close objects become blurry.

As the eye ages the crystalline lens stiffens and becomes less elastic. As the light passes through the eye, the lens is no longer able to adjust and focus the light on to the retina, causing it to focus beyond the retina producing a blurred image.

This will eventually occur to everyone over the age of 40, causing a need for reading glasses irrelevant of having used glasses or contact lenses in the past. Even people that have hyperopia (long sighted) will still experience the loss of near vision caused by presbyopia. It is represented in a prescription as a figure in the ADD section.

Treating Presbyopia:

Corrective lenses – Varifocals or two pairs of glasses/glasses and contact lenses (one to correct distance and the other for near vision)

Laser vision correction – Correct distance vision, leaving a reading prescription or Monovision laser correction (one eye corrected for distance and the other for reading).

Clear Lens Exchange  – The crystalline lens of the eye is replaced with an artificial lens. Trifocal lenses allow for complete correction of a prescription simultaneously fixing distance, intermediate and near vision.

Everyone over the age of 40 will develop presbyopia as the eye naturally ages

Understanding vision is what we do at AVC.

Sight is extremely important and visual impairments of any degree can have drastic effects on your life. Glasses and contact lenses are a temporary solution often not allowing for use during most activities, consequently restricting lifestyles. Vision correction treatment is a permanent solution that can free you from your dependency on glasses and contact lenses

At AVC we are devoted to patient care and outstanding results and have the country’s most advanced laser and non-laser surgical theatres. We are not just a laser clinic, we offer total vision correction. This enables us to treat patients of all ages with a variety treatments that correct a wide range of prescriptions.

Laser– For individuals over the age of 18 and there is no upper age limit. Treats short and long sight with or without astigmatisms. For those over the age of 40, Monovision laser can treat both distant and near vision simultaneously.

Implantable Contact Lens– For individuals aged 40 years old or younger with high prescriptions, complex astigmatisms or are found unsuitable for laser surgery.

Cataracts and Clear Lens Exchange– For individuals over the age of 40 and have developed a cataract or a reading prescription. Trifocal lenses simultaneously treat all fields of vision (distance, near and intermediate).

How to read a prescription


When you have an eye exam you are often given a slip of paper containing your prescription. However most of us do not know how to read this information as we are unfamiliar with the terms and solely rely on what is told to us by our optometrist.

Not all eye prescriptions are the same and there is a significant difference between glasses and contact lenses prescriptions. This is due to the fact that glasses rest approximately 1 to 2 centimetres from your eyes and contact lenses are placed directly on the surface of the eye, and also because contact lenses prescriptions contain information directly related to size and positioning of the lens. Overall, glasses prescriptions are a more accurate account of an individual’s visual conditions, given that glasses are able to accommodate for the correction of more complex conditions than contact lenses.

Example of a glasses prescription:

There are a lot of abbreviations used for medical terms and without knowing what these mean it is very difficult to read a prescription. Below is a list of the most commonly used terms and abbreviations:

  • OD and OS – Are abbreviations for Oculus Dexter and Oculus Sinister, which is Latin for right eye and left eye.
  • + – This represents where the light reaches in the eye. A plus sign signifies far/long sighted (hyperopia) which is when the light is focused beyond the retina.
  • – This represents where the light reaches in the eye. A minus sign signifies near/short sighted sighted (myopia) which is when the light is focused in front of the retina.
  • D – Dioptre is the unit of measurement to determine the refractive power of the lens
  • Sphere (SPH) – This is the amount of lens power required to correctly focus the light to the retina. Can have either a + or – sign in front of the number (if it is not 0)
  • Cylinder (CYL) – This looks at the shape of the eye to determine whether there is an astigmatism present. If the eye is more rugby ball shaped than football than an astigmatism will be present. This figure determines how much of an astigmatism there is present and can have either a + or – sign in front of the number (if it is not 0).
  • Axis – This examines where there is a difference in the curvature of the cornea and determines the orientation of the astigmatism. It is quantified between 0 and 180 degrees
  • ADD – This is for those that have presbyopia and are wearing reading glasses. It is used to determine the additional magnification required for near vision and is always represented as a plus sign.
  • Prism – Some prescriptions include a prism, this is indicative that there are alignment issues with one or both eyes. The figure used represents the amount of prismatic power required to compensate for this issue to help prevent headaches and double vision.
  • Base – This is the location of where the prism should be placed in the lens.

"Having worn glasses and contact lenses for many years, my new lenses have given me such freedom and I feel very privileged to have had the opportunity to have this procedure."

Anne Brown

"I now have 20/20 sight (from approx. -8.00) and am extremely happy.
A big thank you to everyone at Advanced Vision Care."

Phil Scott

"My vision has improved by the day. I have so much more confidence in myself and it’s all thanks to the surgery and people behind it. I could not be more happier."

Marium Hussain

"I couldn’t have picked a better clinic to take care of me and my eyes, and would like to thank everyone of you for making this happen. I have been recommending AVC even before the surgery and will continue to do so."

Sinduja Chandrapalan

"I didn’t think at 70 that I’d be able to see, thread a needle and doing all the things… without putting my glasses on. Best thing that I’ve ever done! I would definitely recommend AVC to anyone interested in vision correction of any kind."

Barbara Rouvray

See the world as it's meant to be seen.

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